The people who write the computer-adaptive section of the GMAT think that this part of the test is wonderful—and not just because they wrote it, or because it makes them a lot of money. They like it because it ensures that the only problems test-takers get to see are problems at, and slightly above and below, their level of ability. One of the things test-writers always hated about the paper-and-pencil test was that a student scoring 300 could guess the correct answer to a 700-level question.

編寫GMAT的計算機自適應部分的人們認為,測試的這一部分很棒–不僅是因為他們編寫了代碼,還是因為它賺了很多錢。 他們之所以喜歡它,是因為它可以確保應試者唯一看到的問題是他們能力水平上的問題,而這些問題僅在其能力水平之上和之下。 測試作者一直討厭紙筆考試的一件事是,得分為300的學生可以猜出700級別問題的正確答案。

But They Have This Little Problem

The questions on the GMAT are still multiple-choice.

 

That may not seem like a problem to you, but consider the following situation. Suppose a student takes the GMAT. She’s answered 30 of the 31 problems on the Quantitative section. There’s one left, and as she looks at this last question, she realizes she has absolutely no idea how to answer it. However, one of the answer choices just “seems” correct. So she picks it.

 

And she gets it correct.

 

The test-writers get nightmares just thinking about this situation. Say that student was supposed to get 500. She “deserved” 500. But by guessing the correct answer to one last problem, she may have gotten 510.

 

Ten points more than she “deserved.”

但是他們有這個小問題

GMAT上的問題仍然是多項選擇。

在您看來,這似乎不成問題,但請考慮以下情況。 假設一個學生參加了GMAT。 她在“定量”部分回答了31個問題中的30個。 剩下一個,當她看著最後一個問題時,她意識到她完全不知道如何回答。 但是,答案選項之一隻是“似乎”正確。 所以她選擇了它。

她說對了。

考慮到這種情況,測試編寫者會感到惡夢。 假設該學生應該得到500。她“應得”500。但是通過猜測對最後一個問題的正確答案,她可能已經獲得510。

比她“應得的”多十分。

GMAC’s Solution

GMAC’s tests wouldn’t be worth much if students could routinely guess the correct answer to difficult questions by picking answers that seemed correct.

 

So the test-writers came up with a wonderful solution:

 

On some difficult questions, answer choices that seem correct are wrong.

GMAC解決方案

如果學生能夠通過選擇看似正確的答案來例行猜測難題的正確答案,那麼GMAC的考試就沒有多大用處。

 

因此,測試編寫者提出了一個絕妙的解決方案:

 

對於某些難題,似乎正確的答案選擇是錯誤的。

Choosing Answers That Seem Correct

Almost everybody gets stuck on at least a few questions when they take the computer-adaptive sections of the GMAT. After all, the questions keep getting harder as you get questions right. Sooner or later, you may run into a question that you just don’t know how to do. If you’re like most people, you’ll get as far as you can, and then choose the answer that seems correct. In other words, you play a hunch. For some questions, you may pick an answer because it “just looks right” or something about it seems to go naturally with the question.

選擇看似正確的答案

在學習GMAT的計算機自適應部分時,幾乎每個人都至少會遇到一些問題。 畢竟,隨著您正確地提出問題,問題變得越來越難。 遲早,您可能會遇到一個問題,就是您根本不知道該怎麼做。 如果您像大多數人一樣,會得到最大的幫助,然後選擇看似正確的答案。 換句話說,您會預感。 對於某些問題,您可能會選擇一個答案,因為它看起來“恰到好處”或與之相關的問題似乎很自然。

What Happens When a Person Takes the GMAT?

Many people pick the answer that seems correct on every problem. Sometimes these hunches are correct; sometimes they are not.

 

On easy questions, the obvious answer tends to be the correct answer.

On medium questions, the obvious answer is correct only some of the time.

On difficult questions, the obvious answer is almost always wrong.

一個人參加GMAT會發生什麼?

許多人選擇了在每個問題上都正確的答案。 有時候這些預感是正確的。 有時他們不是。

 

對於簡單的問題,顯而易見的答案往往是正確的答案。

對於中等問題,顯而易見的答案僅在某些時候是正確的。

對於棘手的問題,顯而易見的答案幾乎總是錯誤的。

What Do Most People Think About the GMAT?

Most people have a few preconceived notions about the GMAT.

 

The GMAT is constructed to be fair.

 

Knowing the content is enough to get most questions right.

 

GMAC wants you to get the questions right if you have the knowledge needed.

 

Unfortunately, none of these is true.

大多數人對GMAT的看法如何?

大多數人對GMAT有一些先入為主的觀念。

 

GMAT構建合理。

 

了解內容足以使大多數問題正確無誤。

 

如果您擁有所需的知識,GMAC希望您正確回答問題。

 

不幸的是,這些都不是真的。

The Truth about the GMAT

The GMAT is constructed to make you miss questions you should get right.

 

You can completely understand the content behind the question and still get it wrong. In fact, almost all GMAT test-takers miss some questions this way.

 

GMAC wants to trick you into getting the question wrong, even if you understand the concepts.

關於GMAT的真相

GMAT旨在讓您錯過應該正確的問題。

 

您可以完全理解問題的內容,但仍然會出錯。 實際上,幾乎所有的GMAT考生都通過這種方式錯過了一些問題。

 

即使您了解這些概念,GMAC仍希望誘使您將問題弄錯。

Don’t Be Predictable

Because most people trust the test, they feel confident reading a problem, solving it in a way that seems correct, and picking the answer that appears in the answer choices.

 

To ace the GMAT, it is not enough to know how to read and to understand math and grammar topics. You have to be able to dodge GMAC’s traps. In this section, we’ll discuss how to use the traps to your advantage and make yourself more likely to pick the right answer, since understanding the content is not a guarantee that you will get the question right. First, let’s understand how GMAC constructs these traps.

不可預測

因為大多數人都信任測試,所以他們有信心閱讀問題,以看似正確的方式解決問題,並選擇出現在答案選擇中的答案。

 

要掌握GMAT,僅僅知道如何閱讀以及理解數學和語法主題還不夠。 您必須能夠躲避GMAC的陷阱。 在本節中,我們將討論如何利用陷阱來發揮自己的優勢,並使自己更有可能選擇正確的答案,因為了解內容並不能保證您將問題正確。 首先,讓我們了解GMAC如何構造這些陷阱。

Put Yourself in GMAC’s Shoes

Imagine you are writing a multiple-choice test. Here is a problem you’ve written:

 

During a sale, a store sells 1/5 of its books. The following day, the sale continues and the store sells 1/5 of the remaining books. What fraction of the original books remains in the store?

 

Because you enjoy making people miserable, you decided to write a question that was very tricky. To solve this problem correctly, a student needs to understand that the second 1/5 is coming out of the books that are remaining after the first day. That is, there are 4/5 of the books left after the first day, and the store sells 1/5 of those books, not another 1/5 of the total.

 

1/5 of 4/5 is 4/25 (solve by replacing “of” with multiplication). So the store sold 1/5 of the total and then another 4/5 of the total, for a final total of 9/25 of the original books sold. Then the student has to subtract that from 1 because the question asks what fraction remains in the store: the answer is 16/25 .

 

So that is already a pretty tough question. By itself, it would be rated a high medium. You have to make one of the answer choices 16/25, since that’s the answer, but how should you come up with the other answer choices? You could make up random fractions, but if a student did the problem wrong, his or her answer probably wouldn’t be one of the choices, and the student would realize that he or she did it wrong. Then the student might figure out the correct way to solve the problem or even decide to take a random guess and get the answer right. You can’t allow that.

投入GMAC的工作

想像一下您正在編寫一個多項選擇測試。這是您寫的一個問題:

 

在銷售過程中,一家商店出售其圖書的1/5。第二天,銷售繼續進行,商店出售了剩餘圖書的1/5。商店中剩餘的原始書有多少?

 

因為您喜歡讓人們痛苦不堪,所以您決定寫一個非常棘手的問題。為了正確解決此問題,學生需要了解第二天1/5是從第一天之後剩餘的書本中取出的。也就是說,第一天之後剩下4/5本書,而商店則出售其中的1/5,而不是總數的1/5。

 

4/5的1/5是4/25(通過將“ of”替換為乘法來解決)。因此,該商店售出了總數的1/5,然後又售出了總數的4/5,最終售出的原始書籍總數為9/25。然後,學生必須從1中減去該分數,因為問題是詢問商店中剩餘的分數:答案是16/25。

 

因此,這已經是一個非常棘手的問題。就其本身而言,它將被評為高中。您必須做出16/25的答案之一,因為這是答案,但是您應該如何提出其他答案呢?您可以隨機分配分數,但是如果學生做錯了問題,則答案可能不是您的選擇之一,而學生會意識到自己做錯了。然後,學生可能會找出解決問題的正確方法,甚至決定進行隨機猜測並獲得正確的答案。你不能允許的。

Making the Problem Extra Tricky Just Because You Can

You want to make sure that this student doesn’t get the answer right. You only want a student who understood the question the first time to get it right and to weed out students who could get it right if they realized they’d made a mistake.

 

To do that, you create answer choices based on what a student might do wrong. So let’s figure out what that is.

 

A student might think the second 1/5 was coming from the total and add 1/5+1/5, and get 2/5. That would be a good answer choice to use.

 

Another student might get that same part wrong but understand that the question was asking about how many are left: 3/5 would be another good answer to use.

 

A student who really doesn’t understand the problem might just multiply the two fractions. 1/5×1/5=1/25 . Make another answer choice 1/25.

 

How about a student who did everything correct but misread the question? The student gets that the store sold 9/25 of the books over the two days and is so excited that he or she didn’t fall into a trap in the first couple steps that the student sees 9/25 in the answer choices and goes ahead and picks it without rereading the question.

 

So now you’ve made sure that most students who don’t know how to solve the problem don’t get it right. Either they do it wrong but don’t realize it because their answer is there, or they look at the answer choices and find one that seems like it could be correct based on the numbers in the problem. But your correct answer is disguised—it isn’t obvious how to get to it because it’s the result of several steps. This bumps up the difficulty level to medium-hard because you’ve ensured that it would be almost impossible for a student to get the problem right without knowing exactly how to do it and carefully avoiding your traps.

僅僅因為可以使問題變得棘手

您要確保該學生沒有得到正確的答案。您只希望一個在第一時間就理解了該問題的學生將問題弄對,並淘汰那些如果意識到自己做錯了就可以解決的學生。

 

為此,您可以根據學生可能做錯的事情來創建答案選擇。因此,讓我們弄清楚這是什麼。

 

一個學生可能會認為第二個1/5來自總數,然後加上1/5 + 1/5,得到2/5。那將是一個很好的答案選擇。

 

另一位學生可能會弄錯相同的部分,但了解到問題是在詢問剩餘的數量:3/5是另一個可以使用的好答案。

 

真正不理解問題的學生可能會將兩個分數相乘。 1 / 5×1 / 5 = 1/25。做出另一個答案選擇1/25。

 

一個什麼都做正確但誤讀了問題的學生呢?學生得知商店在兩天內售出了9/25本書,並感到非常興奮,以至於他或她在最初的兩個步驟中沒有陷入陷阱,以至於學生在答案選擇中看到9/25並在不重讀問題的情況下選擇它。

 

因此,現在您已確保大多數不知道如何解決問題的學生都無法正確解決問題。他們要么做錯了事,但由於答案在那兒而沒有意識到,或者他們查看了答案的選擇,然後根據問題中的數字找到了似乎正確的答案。但是您的正確答案被掩蓋了-如何獲得答案並不明顯,因為這是幾個步驟的結果。這將難度級別提高到了中等難度,因為您已經確保學生幾乎完全不可能完全正確地解決問題,而又不知道該怎麼做並仔細避免陷入陷阱。

Here’s your finished question:

 

During a sale, a store sells 1/5 of its books. The following day, the sale continues and the store sells 1/5  of the remaining books. What fraction of the original books remains in the store?

1/25

9/25

2/5

3/5

16/25

這是您完成的問題:

 

在銷售過程中,一家商店出售其圖書的1/5。 第二天,銷售繼續進行,商店出售了剩餘圖書的1/5。 商店中剩餘的原始書有多少?

1/25

9/25

2/5

3/5

16/25

Use GMAC’s Tricks Against Them

Knowing how these questions are constructed makes you GMAC’s worst nightmare. Now, rather than a great trap question, this just became much easier than it was without the trap choices. Why? Because you might not be able to solve the problem yourself, but you know how not to solve it!

 

You see the phrase of the remaining books and you realize that something tricky is happening. You add the fractions, get (C), subtract them from 1, get (D), and eliminate both of them, because you know there’s a trick that you’re not seeing, so those answers can’t be right. A little quick estimating can eliminate (A) too—there’s no way those numbers are going to get that low.

 

Now this medium-hard question just became a 50/50 shot, and you had no idea how to solve it.

對他們使用GMAC的技巧

知道這些問題是如何構成的,將使您成為GMAC的噩夢。 現在,這比一個沒有陷阱的問題要容易得多,這比沒有選擇陷阱的情況要容易得多。 為什麼? 因為您可能無法自己解決問題,但是您知道如何解決!

 

您看到其餘書籍的短語,就意識到有些棘手的事情正在發生。 您將分數相加,得到(C),從1中減去它們,得到(D),然後將它們全部消除,因為您知道自己沒有看到一個竅門,所以這些答案可能不正確。 快速估算也可以消除(A),這些數字也不會降低到這麼低。

 

現在,這個中等難度的問題變成了50/50的射門,而您不知道如何解決。

No Relief on the Verbal Portion

Let’s pretend again: you still work for GMAC, and you write a reading passage. Let’s use a short one, to keep it simple.

 

For most of this century, big companies dominated an American business scene that seemed to thrive on its own grandness of scale. The expansion westward, the growth of the railroad and steel industries, an almost limitless supply of cheap raw materials, plus a population boom that provided an ever-increasing demand for new products (although not a cheap source of labor) all coincided to encourage the growth of large companies.

 

Then you write a question:

 

To what does the passage credit as bolstering the growth of large companies?

 

And you write the correct answer:

 

The combination of a variety of conditions favorable to big businesses

 

Why did you write an answer choice like that instead of something that is explicitly stated in the passage? Well, because you’re thinking like GMAC. You only want students who have a good understanding of the passage as a whole and read the answer choices carefully to get the question correct.

語言部分無救濟

再次假裝:您仍在為GMAC工作,並撰寫了一篇閱讀文章。為了簡單起見,我們使用一個簡短的例子。

 

在本世紀的大部分時間裡,大公司主導著美國的商業環境,而這種商業似乎在其自身的規模上蒸蒸日上。向西的擴張,鐵路和鋼鐵行業的增長,廉價原材料的幾乎無限供應,加上人口激增,提供了對新產品的需求不斷增長(儘管不是廉價的勞動力),所有這些都恰巧鼓勵了大公司的成長。

 

然後,您寫一個問題:

 

這段話對促進大公司的成長有何貢獻?

 

然後您輸入正確的答案:

 

多種有利於大企業的條件的結合

 

您為什麼寫這樣的答案而不是段落中明確指出的答案?好吧,因為您像GMAC一樣思考。您只希望對整個文章有很好理解的學生,並仔細閱讀答案選擇以使問題正確。

Read Carefully…Or Else

Next you make some trap answers to direct students away from the correct answer. Would you write a trap answer like, The lack of government intervention prior to the Sherman Antitrust Act? No, because nothing in there was mentioned in the passage and a student isn’t likely to pick it.

 

You want to write trap answers that a student will find tempting. How about:

 

The high cost of labor for expanding businesses

 

The passage says this more or less, but it doesn’t answer this particular question because high labor costs don’t help businesses grow. It’s a trap because students might pick it if they forget what the question is actually asking, or if they misunderstand the meaning of the word bolster.

 

You might also write:

 

Large companies’ ability to transport steel via railroads

 

Greater demand for new products in the West than in the East

 

Cheap labor as a result of a population boom

 

Notice that all of these are not supported by the passage but have some elements that are found within the passage. In fact, they are, respectively, examples of the common GMAT trap answer types: Recycled Language, No Such Comparison, and Reversal. We’ll go into much greater detail on these later on. Your correct answer, however, is 100% supported by what is in the passage but doesn’t have a lot of memory traps that make you want to pick it immediately after reading the passage.

仔細閱讀…否則

接下來,您將做出一些陷阱答案,以引導學生遠離正確答案。您是否會寫一個陷阱性的答案,例如在《謝爾曼反托拉斯法》頒布之前政府缺乏干預?不,因為段落中沒有提及任何內容,而且學生不太可能選擇它。

 

您想寫陷阱答案,學生會發現它們很誘人。怎麼樣:

 

擴大業務所需的高昂勞動力成本

 

這段話或多或少地說明了這一點,但它沒有回答這個特定問題,因為高昂的勞動力成本並不能幫助企業發展。這是一個陷阱,因為如果學生忘記了問題的實質或誤解了“支撐”一詞的含義,他們可能會選擇它。

 

您可能還會寫:

 

大型公司通過鐵路運輸鋼鐵的能力

 

西方國家對新產品的需求比東方國家更大

 

人口激增帶來的廉價勞動力

 

請注意,所有這些都不受段落支持,但其中包含一些元素。實際上,它們分別是常見的GMAT陷阱答案類型的示例:回收語言,無此類比較和反向。稍後,我們將詳細介紹這些內容。不過,您的正確答案在文章中得到了100%的支持,但沒有太多的內存陷阱,因此您想要在閱讀文章後立即選擇它。

How to Use this to Your Advantage

Now that you know how GMAC constructs wrong answers, you can use that to your advantage to avoid picking them.

 

Here are two examples of how you might do that.

 

You read a problem and immediately know what to do. You do one step on paper or solve quickly in your head and see that answer in the answer choices. You’re super excited to click on the answer and you’re sure you got such an obvious problem correct.

 

Stop! Don’t pick that answer. You aren’t likely to see many, if any, questions that are so easy you barely have to do any work. If you think you know the answer right away, go back and reread the problem carefully. Reread the question and the answer choices as well. You have probably made a mistake.

 

If you have been doing well on the last few questions, the questions are going to get harder, and that means less obvious answers!

 

You can’t figure out why your “obvious” answer is wrong OR you have no idea how to actually solve the problem.

 

Look at the answer choices and eliminate anything that is obvious. Ask yourself what answer choice you could get by doing one or two simple steps. Or maybe you know the first step of the problem and see that answer on there but you know there’s more to do. Eliminate any answer choices that you can tell are not correct and take a guess among whatever is left.

 

This applies to the Verbal as well. You should never just pick out an answer choice that immediately seems correct. It is probably a trap. Use POE and think carefully about what the passage actually means.

如何利用這個優勢

既然您知道GMAC如何構造錯誤的答案,就可以利用它來避免選擇它們。

 

這是兩個示例,說明您如何執行此操作。

 

您讀了一個問題,立即知道該怎麼辦。您在紙上邁出了第一步,或者很快就解決了,然後在答案選擇中看到了答案。您非常興奮,可以單擊答案,並且可以確定自己確實有如此明顯的問題。

 

停止!不要選擇那個答案。您不可能看到很多(如果有的話)如此簡單的問題,您幾乎不需要做任何工作。如果您認為自己立即知道答案,請返回並仔細閱讀問題。重讀問題和答案選擇。您可能犯了一個錯誤。

 

如果您在最後幾個問題上做得很好,那麼這些問題將變得越來越難,這意味著不太明顯的答案!

 

您無法弄清楚為什麼“顯而易見的”答案是錯誤的,或者您不知道如何實際解決問題。

 

查看答案選擇,並消除任何明顯的內容。問問自己,通過執行一個或兩個簡單的步驟可以得到什麼答案。或者,也許您知道問題的第一步,然後在那裡看到答案,但您知道還有更多事情要做。消除您可以說出的所有答案選擇不正確,然後對剩下的任何答案進行猜測。

 

這也適用於口頭。您絕不應該只選擇立即正確的答案。這可能是一個陷阱。使用POE並仔細考慮該段落的實際含義。

What This Means for Your Bin

Higher-level questions tend to have more trap answers. In fact, that’s often what makes a higher-level question rated as so difficult. It’s not that the math is hard or the passage is complex, but that many students are fooled and miss the question.

 

If you know most of your questions are coming from the medium-hard and hard bins, look out for those trap answers. If you’ve noticed a trap and avoided it, you can feel more confident that your answer is correct.

 

If your questions are drawing mostly from the easy and medium bins, there will still be trap answers. The most important thing to keep in mind is that while GMAC considers those questions easier, they’re not easy for you since the test is designed to give you questions at or above your appropriate level. Even if the questions are more straightforward, answer choices are always constructed based on common errors and misreadings.

這對您的垃圾箱意味著什麼

更高級別的問題往往會有更多的陷阱答案。 實際上,通常這就是使較高級別的問題被評定為如此困難的原因。 這並不是說數學很難或段落複雜,而是許多學生被愚弄而錯過了問題。

 

如果您知道大部分問題都來自中等難度的垃圾箱,請尋找那些陷阱的答案。 如果您發現並避免了陷阱,則可以更有把握地確信答案是正確的。

 

如果您的問題主要來自於中型和中型垃圾箱,那麼仍然會有陷阱的答案。 要記住的最重要的一點是,儘管GMAC認為這些問題比較容易,但對您而言卻並不容易,因為該考試旨在為您提供適當水平或更高水平的問題。 即使問題更直接,答案選擇也總是基於常見的錯誤和誤讀來構造。

Be honest with yourself! Practice, evaluate your performance, and develop a solid understanding of what bins you can reasonably handle. The techniques you will learn and practice will increase what you can handle, but don’t try to jump ahead of yourself. What kind of practice is more likely to improve your score? What kind of practice is more likely to just be frustrating?

 

Correctly answering 90% of the problems in a challenging bin

 

Incorrectly answering 90% of the problems in a really challenging bin

 

Even if you want your score to go up significantly, take it one step at a time.

不要自欺欺人! 練習,評估性能,並對可以合理處理的垃圾箱有深入的了解。 您將學習和練習的技術將增加您的處理能力,但不要試圖超越自己。 哪種練習更有可能提高您的分數? 哪種做法更容易讓人沮喪?

 

在具有挑戰性的垃圾箱中正確回答90%的問題

 

在具有挑戰性的垃圾箱中錯誤地回答了90%的問題

 

即使您希望分數大幅提高,也要一次邁出一步。

Summary

Almost everyone approaches the GMAT by choosing the answer that seems correct, all things considered.

 

The GMAT is constructed with incorrect answer choices that the test-writers think you might like. If it’s a mistake a person might easily make on a problem, it’s probably an answer choice.

 

If a question seems easy to you, STOP, and reread the question. Make sure you haven’t fallen into a trap. If you caught a twist or trick along the way, you can feel more confident.

 

Knowing why an answer choice is a trap can help you eliminate and improve your chances—even on problems you don’t know how to solve.

概要

考慮到所有因素,幾乎每個人都通過選擇看似正確的答案來接近GMAT。


GMAT的構建方式有測試編寫者認為您可能會喜歡的錯誤答案。 如果這是一個人可能輕易在問題上犯的錯誤,則可能是一個答案選擇。


如果您覺得問題很簡單,請停止並重新閱讀該問題。 確保您沒有陷入陷阱。 如果您在此過程中遇到了麻煩或技巧,您會感到更有信心。


知道為什麼選擇答案會成為陷阱,這可以幫助您消除和提高機會,即使是在您不知道如何解決的問題上。

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